from pp. 199-200

cronista reporter (journalist); chronicler (cognate). From crónica ("chronicle", cognate). This word applies to both male and female reporters; the form cronisto does not exist. Do not confuse this word with English crony, in spite of possible shared etymology.

pudor sense of modesty or reserve, demureness, shame, chastity, pudor (cognate), pudeur ("a sense of shame or embarrassment, especially with regard to matters of a sexual or personal nature") (cognate). Cognate with the root of impudent ("shameless", "without shame"). The words pudor and pudeur may not be known to many English readers, but some dictionaries carry them. Alternatively, use prudent or pure as a mnemonic.

abeja bee. Cognate with bee if traced to Proto-Indo-European according to one theory. Cognate with apiculture ("beekeeping"), apiary ("place where bees and their hives are kept"). If you prefer a mnemonic, associate a spelling bee with the first two Spanish letters pronounced like A-Be.

anfitrión host. anfitriona hostess. From Amphitryon (in Greek mythology), whose wife Alcmene was seduced by Zeus disguised in the shape of Amphitryon. Alcmene acted as a hostess when Zeus visited; hence the meaning of the word. The proper noun can be analyzed: anfi- ("around", as in amphitheatre) + a root from which tyrant is derived, according to one theory. Either think of "a man that rules all around" or "(giving a treat) around a tyrant" as a mnemonic.

empuje push, thrust, boost. empujar to push. Cognate with impulse. The root is cognate with push, pulse, pulsate.

cáscara shell; peel. From Latin quassare ("to quash"). Cognate with quash. Doublet with casco ("helmet"), quejar ("to complain"), with the root of fracasar ("to fail"). If you already know casco, think of the helmet as a protective shell. Else, think of quashing the shell of an egg. See also casco.

placer to please (cognate); pleasure (cognate). Also cognate with the root of complacent. From Latin placere ("to please").

concejo council (cognate). This word has much lower usage frequency than consejo, partly because the latter has an additional meaning of "advice". The two words are from different Latin etymons, but English council is used where either Spanish word is used. See also consejo.

térmico thermal (cognate). Remember to add h after t when you learn this word.

polaco Polish; Pole. Polonia Poland. Suffix -aco means de ("from", "of").

arquero archer (cognate); goalkeeper. In the second sense, it's cognate with ark, from Latin arca ("large box to keep valuables"); think of Noah's Ark. Suffix -ero indicates person in this profession.

nulo null (cognate); useless, good-for-nothing.

maquillaje makeup (cognate).

psíquico psychic (cognate), mental.

bendición blessing. bendecir to bless. bendito blessed. From Latin benedictio (literally "good expressions"),

benedicere (literally "to say well of"). If you say the Latin words quickly, omission (syncope) of the second vowel is possible. See also maldición ("curse").

guarnición (military) garrison; (culinary) garnish (cognate), decoration. In the first sense, it may be cognate with garrison, guard.

tertulia circle, salon, social gathering. Uncertain origin. One theory holds that it's a back-formation from Quinto Septimio Florente Tertuliano (ca. 160 - ca. 220, or ca. 155 - ca. 240, Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus in Latin, anglicized as Tertullian), an early Christian author. Philip II of Spain in the 16th century would organize social gatherings to discuss ancient works, including those by Tertuliano, in which the king showed great interest. This word has entered English vocabulary. If you don't know it and don't know this historical figure, use a mnemonic such as "Meeting attendees have tortilla for lunch". Scholars meet to discuss serious issues so a simple lunch fits their attitude toward life.

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