from pp. 98-99
miel honey. Cognate with English molasses, Latin mellitus ("about honey"), which exists in English as part of diabetes mellitus, commonly shortened to diabetes, the disease for which one symptom is sweet urine.
cobertura cover, coverage (cognate). Normally b and v easily interchange in Spanish (although etymologically it's not the case for this particular word).
habilidad ability (cognate). Not to be confused with English habit, which would be Spanish hábito, where the third syllable starts with t, not l.
cerveza beer. Etymology is unhelpful. It may be remotely related to cream or cereal. Use a mnemonic such as "Sirve esa!" ("Serve that!").
estación station (cognate); season (one of the four seasons of year). When speaking of an event or activity appropriate for a time of year (e.g. "football season"), it's better to use temporada.
sumamente extremely, highly. Cognate with summit.
apuntar to point (to, at) (cognate); to aim.
fallo failure (cognate), mistake; judgment, sentence, verdict.
leyenda legend (cognate).
barra bar (cognate), rod; slash (punctuation, "/"). Note the punctuation "vertical bar" ("|") is called barra vertical or pleca in Spanish.
primo cousin (male or unspecified gender); prime (cognate) number. From Latin primus ("first"). In the first sense, its feminine form is prima. The reason for the sense of "cousin", according to one theory, could be that, originally there was Latin consobrinus primus ("first cousin"), which changed to referring to "cousin" in general, and later for some reason consobrinus, not primus, was dropped from the phrase. This resulted in Spanish primo, derived from Latin primus, referring to "cousin". (cf. Joan Corominas, Breve Diccionario Etimológico de la Lengua Castellana)
trasladar to move; to transfer (cognate); to translate (cognate), traducir. See also traducir.
refugio refuge (n.) (cognate), shelter. refugiado refugee (cognate). Suffix -io is equivalent to English -ium, indicating a place, e.g. gymnasium, auditorium.
terapia therapy (cognate). terapeuta therapist (cognate). Note that terapeuta is for both male and female therapist; the form terapeuto does not exist. And note terapia should not be confused with tilapia.
herramienta tool. The root means "iron" (Spanish hierro), material suitable for a tool. Doublet herrar means "to shoe a horse", "to brand cattle". Suffix -miento/a is equivalent to English -ment, forming nouns from verbs. See also hierro.
judío Jewish (adj.); Jew (n.) (cognate). From Latin iudaeus, which lost its second syllable consonant when inherited by Old French, from which English Jew is derived. If d blocks you from associating the word with English Jew or Jewish, think of Judah, the founder of the Israelite and the Kingdom of Judah, the land of Judea and the Jews, and consider the fact that Spanish d is pronounced softly.
foro forum (cognate).
retirar to remove, to withdraw; to retire (not due to age) (cognate). retiro retirement, jubilación. The root tirar means "to throw", "to shoot". Hence the first sense of the word, "to remove". English retire most commonly means "to leave job due to age limit", which is jubilar in Spanish, not retirar.
fugar to escape, flee. Cognate with fugitive.
sonar to sound (cognate), to ring; to sound familiar, to ring a bell. Note the stem-changing conjugated form suena.
someter to subdue. Cognate with submit. The root -met- means "to put", with prefix so- equivalent to English sub-.
ave bird, pájaro (some people consider pájaro to be smaller than ave). Cognate with aviation.